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Research

We are involved in various research projects but our main focus is on novel plant-based antimicrobials.labwork

RECENT PRESENTATIONS WE HAVE GIVEN:

Methylcobalamin Versus Hydroxocobalamin for treating B12 Deficiency
Structural and pharmacokinetic differences between methylcobalamin and hydroxocobalamin, and routes of administration, presented at the Pernicious Anaemia Society’s 2013 conference.

Phase I Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Study of a Novel Protein Kinase Inhibitor
Presented the background material on the development and characterisation of small molecule inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinases. Since atypical tyrosine phosphorylation has been shown to cause many human diseases, including cancer and diabetes, the therapeutic implications of PK inhibition are huge.

Immunotherapy and Virotherapy in Cancer Treatments – Synergy or Antagonism?
Presentation demonstrating that creating combinatorial therapeutics by bioengineering immunomodulating transgenes into viral vectors synergistically combines immunotherapy and virotherapy. These combinatorial therapeutics have demonstrated increased clinical efficacy whilst limiting host immune responses resulting in superior efficacy than either modality alone.

Randomised Controlled Trials – Why the blind must lead the blind
Presentation to clinicians and researchers on the importance of double-blind randomised clinical trials.

PAST RESEARCH SUMMARY – A SMALL SELECTION

Wild, A (2010) The many forms of Borrelia burgdorferi and how to kill them
Proposal of a next generation phytopharmaceutical comprising volatile plant components to increase bacteria outer membrane permeability, non volatile plant molecules to inhibit the bacteria’s efflux pump and to inhibit the ß-lactamase activity of the bacteria.

Wild, A (2010) Inhibition of cancer by farnesol
Farnesol, an isoprenoid, inhibits tumorigenesis in several in vivo models by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Topical farnelsol exhibits chemotherapeutic and chemopreventative efficacy in skin tumorigenesis. Clinical research review which led to the development of a therapeutic skin serum.

Wild, A (2009) Arrhythmic cardiovascular disease and Borrelia burgdorferi.
Borrelia burgdorferi infection is often missed in patients with arrhythmic cardiovascular disease and diagnostic techniques are not yet adequate. Clinical research review.

Wild, A (2009) Borrelia burgdorferi as a causative agent in asystolic pause.
An uncommon complication of Borrelia burgdorferi infection is asystolic pause. Clinical research review.

Wild, A (2009) Ventricular tachycardia and Borrelia burgdorferi.
Life threatening progression of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Clinical research review.

Wild, A (2009) D-limonene – an emerging non-toxic novel cancer therapeutic.
Literature review.

Wild, A (2009) Perillyl alcohol as a metabolite of d-limonene, and its implications in oncology.
Literature review.

Wild, A (2009) Spirochete susceptibility to antioxidant constituents of Mediterranean plants
Diterpenes and monoterpene phenols show in vitro bactericidal activity. Implications for the development of novel bactericidal therapeutics.

Wild, A (2008) Inhibiting nuclear factor – κB: the efficacy of volatile and non-volatile plant molecules
Clinical research review and proposal of a next generation of phytopharmaceutical inhibiting NF- κB. NF- κB activation leads to increased tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α attracting neutrophils which increase oxidative damage through their production of free radicals. The crosstalk of NF- κB with redox signaling is critical for cellular fate under oxidative stress. Inhibiting NF- κB and using SOD mimetics to attenuate ROS-related cell injury using volatile and non-volatile plant products makes for novel therapeutics. The findings led to the development of a novel skin active.

Wild, A (2008) Investigation of human neutrophil elastase inhibitors in volatile plant products.
The essential oil of Nigella Sativa (L.) inhibits human neutrophil elastase in vitro via a major component, thymoquinone, which makes it a potential source for novel therapeutics for the treatment of emphysema.

Wild, A (2008) Thymoquinone inhibits tumour growth in vitro: a potential cancer therapeutic
Literature review

Wild, A (2008) Repellency effect of essential oils against several mosquito species.
The findings were used to develop a superior mosquito repellent to citronella-based products.

Wild, A (2008) Artemisinin: two millennia to validate its ethnobotanical uses
Artemesia annua L. has been used in China since 200 BCE as a cure for maleria, the mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by the plasmodium parasite. Today efficacy with artemisinin, and its derivatives, against malaria is high even in areas with multidrug-resistant parasite strains. Still ninety percent of malaria deaths occur in sub-Sahara Africa, where chloroquinine remains the drug of choice.

Wild, A (2007) Cellulitis: a neglected risk in patients with sarcoidosis
Clinical research review.

Wild, A (2007) Evidence-based treatments in acute radiation-induced dermatitis
There is much anecdotal data supporting the ethnobotanical uses of plants for radiation-induced dermatitis. Calendula officinalis preparations gave outstanding results due to calendula’s triterpenoid esters. Results of phase III clinical trials support the use of calendula over standard topical agents. The findings led to the development of a Skin Protection Emulsion for prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis.

Wild, A (2006) Efficacy of volatile and non volatile plant products in inhibiting degradive enzymes in humans
Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) activity increases with age and with UV radiation exposure. Elastase and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes are responsible for the degradation of elastin and collagen fibres. Several volatile and non volatile plant extracts inhibit degradive enzymes preventing UV radiation induced matrix degradation and should form part of an effective anti-ageing topical therapeutic. Findings let to the development of a novel skin therapeutic.

Wild, A (2006) MRSA – Evidence-based therapeutics from volatile plant products
The findings were critically evaluated and were drawn on in the development of an ointment which relied on the synergy between the molecules from several plants to enhance its effect.

Wild, A (2006) Antimicrobial properties of volatile plant products.
The findings were summarised and compared to emerging research in the field. They were critically evaluated and were drawn on in the development of the formulation used in a natural and organic preservative.

Wild, A (2006) Synergism of plant volatile molecules in potential antimicrobial preservative.
The findings were used to determine percentage components to use in the formulation of a natural and organic preservative.

Wild, A (2006) Investigating volatile plant molecules as skin penetration enhancers
The findings were critically evaluated and were drawn on in the development of the formulation used in an organic skin active.

Wild, A (2006) Inhibiting pseudomonas aeruginosa with volatile plant products.
The findings were used to determine percentage components to use in the formulation of a natural and organic preservative.

Wild, A (2005) Agonis Fragrans: antimicrobial properties
The volatile plant extract of this Australian shrub demonstrates significant antimicrobial activity in vitro. The oxides, monoterpenes and monoterpenols are equally represented which accounts for its efficacy. It is an effective constituent of antimicrobial formulations which were developed as a result of this research.

Wild, A (2005) Scar Healing: Efficacy of plant extract synergy
The synergy of italidiones in volatile plant extracts, antioxidants and naturally-occurring trans-retinoic acid in a formulation result in a superior scar healing therapeutic.